This territory was ethnically very diverse. Tito, who would later lead the region, famously said: "I am the leader of one country which has two alphabets, three languages, four religions, five donna dating, six republics, surrounded by seven neighbours, a country in which live eight ethnic minorities. InKing Alexander I tried to curb nationalist and separatist tendencies by turning the country into a dictatorship and renamed the country "Yugoslavia".
He also decided to abolish the country's historic regions and drew new internal boundaries for provinces, or banovinas, that avoided all historical and ethnic lines.
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Alexander I's plan failed and when, in AprilAxis troops conquered Yugoslavia ; many of its citizens didn't mourn its passing. The country was split up : an independent Croatian statewhich also included most of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was created under the rule of the fascist Ustashe movement.
They conducted large-scale genocide campaigns against Serbian, Jewish and Roma citizens.
After the war, the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was founded. Tito first became the prime minister and later the longtime president, ruling the country until his death in Josip Broz Tito was the most defining figure of 20th century Yugoslav history. Here you can watch a documentary about Tito. Inafter a conflict between Tito and Stalin Yugoslavia was expelled from the international association of socialist states Cominformm.
In the following years Yugoslavia developed its own version of communism - Titoism.
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Tito was a popular public figure in Yugoslavia, viewed as a unifying symbol for the Yugoslav federation. He is also named the architect of Yugoslavia's disintegration, however, and remains a controversial figure.
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Read this Time Magazine article on the life of Tito. Printer-friendly version During the s, a series of conflicts and political upheavals resulted in the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, or simply Yugoslavia. The country was first formed as a kingdom in and then reorganized as a communist state under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito after World War II. The constitution established six constituent republics and two autonomous provincesroughly divided on ethnic lines.
By Yugoslavia was plagued with many problems: foreign debt, inflation, unemployment, strong nationalist feelings and political problems that created a troublesome atmosphere. This eventually led to a crisis and the country fell apart into several independent countries.
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Slovenia and then Croatia were the first to break away, but could only do so at the cost of sparking conflict with Serbia. By further conflict had broken out in Bosnia, which had also declared independence. The Serbs who lived in Bosnia were determined to remain within Yugoslavia and to help build a greater Serbia. There was fierce fighting between Bosnian-Muslims, Serbs, and Croats.
The Serbs massacred thousands of Bosnian-Muslims and engaged in ethnic cleansing.
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The presence of UN peacekeepers to contain the situation proved ineffective and it lasted until before a peace agreement was signed. The Bosnian War left the newly-independent country, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and its multi-ethnic capital, Sarajevo, all but devastated.
The Washington Post provides another interesting photo documentary about the Bosnian Warwith informative photo captions.
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This agreement ended the war in Bosnia, which had lasted for three and a half years. The chief negotiator of the Dayton Peace Accords was the American diplomat Richard Holbrooke, who recently passed away. Read this article published by the Council of Foreign Relations to find out more about Holbrooke and the peace negotiations. In the article, the author talks about the memoir Holbrooke wrote about his time as chief negotiator.
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Click here to find this memoir with the title "To End a War" on amazon. Printer-friendly version The history of Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina can be traced back more than years, when, in the saraievo dating on- line 15th century, many Sephardic Jews arrived after their expulsion from Spain as stipulated by the Expulsion Decree saraievo dating on- line King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile.
Often called the Alhambra Decree, this law expelled 20, Spanish Jews from the country. Learn more about the expulsion of the Jewish population from Spain in this article from the Jewish Virtual Library. Sarajevo became the centre of flourishing Jewish life in the Balkans. Until today, most of the Jews who live in the area are Sephardim. The Jewish Virtual Library provides information on the Ashkenazim.
During the war, the majority of Bosnian Jews was annihilated. Only about 4, Jews survived, either by joining partisan saraievo dating on- line or by fleeing. After many of the survivors returned and the Jewish community was reconstituted.
In recent years, the number of Jews emigrating from Bosnia and Herzegovina has decreased.
Today approximately Jews live in Bosnia and Herzegovina, about two-thirds of them in Sarajevo. About ninety percent of the community has a Sephardic background. However, mostly older people still speak Ladino. Printer-friendly version Today, Sarajevo is the capital and largest dating contraintuitiv of Bosnia and Herzegovina and has aboutinhabitants.
The city is located in the Sarajevo valley of Bosnia, surrounded by the Dinaric Etiopiană dating în sua and situated along the Miljacka River. Inthe travel guide series Lonely Planet listed Sarajevo as one of the top ten cities to visit. Printer-friendly version La Benevolencija was established in Sarajevo in This Jewish cultural, educational and humanitarian society gained international attention for the nonsectarian humanitarian aid that it provided for the people of Sarajevo during the infamous siege of To learn more about La Benevolencija, read this article written by Dragica Levi, one of the founders mentioned in the film.
Here you can read the story from her book that describes the role of La Benevolencija in Sarajevo during the war. Ladino is the Hispanic language of Sephardic Jews.
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Today, Israel has the highest number of Ladino speakers. Learn more about Ladino-speaking people in this article by the Foundation for the Advancement of the Sephardic Studies and Culture. The story of La Benevolencija has inspired many other people. Printer-friendly version A Sephardic Jew is a Jew descended from, or who follows the customs and traditions of, Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula modern Spain and Portugal before their expulsion in the late 15th century.
For religious purposes, the term Sephardim also means all Jews who use a Sephardic style of liturgy, and therefore includes most Jews of Middle Eastern background, whether or not they have any historical connection to the Iberian Peninsula.
The precise origins of the Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula are unclear. There is inconclusive evidence of a Jewish presence dating from pre-Roman times. More substantial references date from the Roman period, when substantial Jewish immigration probably first occurred. In King Manuel I of Portugal issued a similar decree.
Many of the expelled Jews re-settled in the Ottoman Empireto which the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina belonged at that time, and where they were welcomed by Sultan Bajazet II. Others settled in places like what are today Morocco, Algeria, southern France and Italy. Some even settled on the island Curacao in the southern Caribbian.
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Ladino, or Judeo-Spanishis the language of Sephardic Jews. It only became a specifically Jewish language after their expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the 15th century. Cut off from the further developments in the language, saraievo dating on- line Sephardim continued to speak it in the communities and countries to which they emigrated. Ladino therefore reflects the grammar and vocabulary of 14th and 15th century Spanish.
In the Sephardic communities of the Ottoman Empire, the language not only retained older forms of Spanish, but borrowed so many words from Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Turkish, and even French, that it became more and more distorted. Like other historical Jewish languagesLadino is in danger of language extinction another prominent example is Yiddish.
Most native speakers are elderly, many of them having emigrated to Israel where the language was not transmitted to their children or grandchildren. However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardic communities, for example in music.
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Sephardic history also plays a central role in the Centropa film about Güler Orgun. In the traditional Ladino language of her ancestors, Güler Orgun tells us how her family found a new home in the Ottoman Empire after being expelled from Spain in the late 15th century. We learn why her parents converted to Islam, and how Güler herself later came to find her Jewish roots again - before she married a Muslim man.
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